Saturday, July 11, 2020

How to Write Essays on Essay Sample Topics

How to Write Essays on Essay Sample TopicsThe Essay Sample Topics section is a part of the TOEFL preparation where you will have to write some essays. There are a lot of online learning institutions that will provide TOEFL pre-tests and TOEFL essay tests to students who want to take the test in order to pass the test and be able to become a professional in the English language. The truth is that the TOEFL is the most effective way to pass the test because it is the only way for those students who have a good score to get into the best universities or colleges.You can choose to take the test but the TOEFL is the only way to achieve your goal and that is becoming a professional in the English language. The best thing about this subject is that it is a subject that people find easy to understand and you can have a great career once you become a professional. As long as you take some online teaching courses you will be able to pass the TOEFL without fail and this is the first step in bec oming a professional in the English language.The essay sample topics that are included in the TOEFL test can be a bit difficult if you do not know how to write your papers. You will find that it can be very hard to come up with the right topic if you are not familiar with the subject. If you are not familiar with the subject, you might need some help from someone who knows the subject well.The best thing that you can do is to search for a TOEFL course on the internet. These online teaching courses will provide you with sample essays on various subjects so that you can familiarize yourself with the topic. You will be able to finish the paper before you can even start writing your own essay.Most subjects will have different topics for you to write about and you should have some idea on what subject you will be writing about. The best way to know this is to research the subject and find out what kind of subjects are used in the discussion. For example, you can ask someone who is an exp ert in this field to help you.When you find out about the subject, you should write a topic that is related to it. Once you are done with the topic then you should start writing the essay and give it the most attention possible. Do not forget to proofread your work so that you will be able to determine where there are problems that you need to fix.Writing essays on topics from essay sample topics is not that hard. When you find a topic that you want to write about, then you will need to find the perfect essay topic that is exactly what you want to discuss. One tip that you can use is to rewrite the topic from scratch, based on what you found in the internet.It will take some time and you will be able to write an essay on the essay sample topics that you have chosen. However, the process will be easier than what you would think. Once you know what subject you are going to write about, all you have to do is start researching on the topic until you find something that is similar to wha t you already know about the subject.

Wednesday, May 20, 2020

Presidential Election Of The United States Essay - 1909 Words

Presidential debates in the Unites States are a hot topic around the world. Even though American voters have the role of choosing the next president, people from many different countries tend to heed interest in the elections, due to the fact that the president of the United States has such an influence in locations around the world. People rely on the media to obtain factual information about the presidential candidates, their political stances, and interests in foreign affairs. The fact that information about the presidential candidates can be distributed worldwide by the media is wonderful. Even though this sounds wonderful, it is possible that statements during the debates, or results from them, can be portrayed with bias by the media, or even censored. So, there is a possibility that the interpretation of the American presidential candidates, by people around the world, may be altered after a debate. This change could be influenced by the debate itself, or by media releasing inf ormation about the debates. This will be performed by showing the effect debates and media have on voters in the United States of America, academic journals regarding censorship in Russian media, and ultimately comparing the results of several of the 2016 presidential debates between presidential candidates Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump, portrayed by the pro Hillary Clinton American News source, the Los Angeles Times, to Russia’s pro Donald Trump Pravda Report. It is a common belief thatShow MoreRelatedPresidential Election Of United States1497 Words   |  6 Pages1596 Presidential Elections Introduction The presidential elections of United States of America take an indirect form where citizens of the U.S who are registered as voters in one of the states in U.S which are usually 50 states, or the District of Columbia, cast ballots for Electoral College members, referred to as electors. These electors then in turn cast direct votes known as electoral votes in their respective state capitals for president and vice president positions of the United States. EachRead MorePresidential Election Of The United States Essay787 Words   |  4 PagesElections in the United States are a two-stage electoral process; primary and general. In addition to the primaries and general elections held in even-numbered years. Candidates running under the standard of one of the major political parties must first win the party s endorsement in a primary election. The distinction between general elections and primary elections consist of primary elections being preliminary election, in which the candidates of the presidential race are designated. ElectionRead MorePresidential Election Of The United States1182 Words   |  5 PagesOn September 26, 2016, 84 million people tuned in to the most watched debate in American history (Battaglio). 84 million of the 135 million people who are estimated to vote in the United States’ 2016 presidential election fulfilled their citizen duties on becoming aware of the candidates’ policies in order to make an informed decision when voting happens in November (Battaglio). About 60% of estimated voters watched the raw debate so where will the rest of the voters get their information from?Read MorePresidential Election Process Of The United States1449 Words   |  6 PagesPresidential Election Process The election process in the United States can be overwhelming and confusing. Firstly, how a citizen can be eligible to become a Presidential candidate? What are the requirements or the qualifications that a person needs to be a candidate? With that in mind, the candidates get to sponsor for their electoral campaigns from what type of funds and from whom? People need to know the type of character that a candidate demonstrates. America has become very demanding. ThereRead MoreU.s. Presidential Election On The United States1042 Words   |  5 PagesThere will be a U.S. presidential election on November 8, 2016. Whether you identify as a Republican, a Democrat, or somewhere in between, there is no denying that Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton are two highly controversial candidates. While it is difficult to tell where most Americans stand on the election issue, it is easy to see that ancient Chinese Legalist thinkers would be staunch supporters of Donald Trump. Legalist ideas seem to b e the foundation upon which Trump’s Republican Party wasRead MoreProblems with the Presidential Elections in United States1788 Words   |  8 Pagesplace for over 200 years and most Americans are still not sure how it works or if it is the best system. With the 2000 presidential election it became very clear that most US citizens have little understanding of how our president is chosen. The Electoral College is just barely surviving and is under more and more attack all the time. This paper will discuss the presidential election process, its pros and cons, legal aspects, and propose an idea that would improve our current system so it better reflectsRead MoreThe Presidential Election Of The United States1507 Words   |  7 PagesThe 1980 presidential election of the United States featured three primary candidates, Republican Ronald Reagan, Democrat Jimmy Carter and liberal Republican John Anderson. Ronald Reagan was the governor of California before he decided to run for th e presidency. John Anderson was a representative in Illinois and Carter was the incumbent. The lengthy Iran hostage crisis sharpened public opinions by the beginning of the election season. In the 1970s, the United States were experiencing a strainingRead MorePresidential Election Of The United States1807 Words   |  8 Pagestrail, the United States of America has finally elected its new president, Donald Trump. No that is not a typo, this is real life. It was a hard fought battle between Hillary Clinton and the Donald which ultimately lead to one of the most shocking upsets in recent American politics. Being that the odds were heavily stacked against Trump as poll after poll predicted Clinton be the victor, it was to the astonishment of many that he reigned victorious during this 2016 presidential election cycle. BeRead MoreThe United States Presidential Elections1956 Words   |  8 PagesThe United States presidential elections are this year, 2016, in November. As a student, a citizen, or an aspiring politician, it is a good idea to know a little something about the presidential candidates. At this point in the race there are only five people left that are running, Donald trump (R), Bernie Sanders (S), Ted Cruz (R), Hillary Clinton (D), and John Kasich(R). One might want to know the issues of each candidate, which party they are affiliating with, how they plan to go about fixingRead MorePresidential Election : President Of The United States1504 Words   |  7 PagesZayas English 071 Jon E. Stern July 6, 2016 2016 PRESIDENTIAL ARGUMENT When it comes to the topic of the 2016 presidential election most of us will readily agree that the decision on who is to become the President of the United States of America is a difficult choice. Where this agreement usually ends, however, is on the question of who is a better fit for Presidency. While some are

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Censorship Of The Media - 1542 Words

But while the larger media corporations may be hesitant to allow these other conceptions of the human to be represented in the mainstream, there is no such hesitation in fan communities. The fans are not and do not have to be concerned with â€Å"securing the well-being of our present ethnoclass† (Wynter). Rather, they are considered with their own well-being and their own representation and thus they are able to tell the stories that they want to be told and there is nothing preventing them from doing so. While TV shows can be cancelled, movies rated so that almost no one can see them, and books can be banned, but there is no such censorship on the internet so they are free to represent other human experiences without fear of being silenced or†¦show more content†¦While this may not be a wholly accurate reflection of how these people are treated in reality, one must remember that fanfiction is not a primarily political act, but an act of wish fulfillment. This normal ization reflects the desire of the â€Å"Human† to be treated equally to the â€Å"Man.† And even though there has been a significant increase in the representation of the LGBTQ+ community, it is important to note that the majority of these characters still happen to be white. White people are arguably the most overrepresented group in the media and while some may argue that, at least in the United States, white people make up the majority of people and are therefore have greater representation, that does not change the fact that people of color exist and deserve just as much representation as their white counterparts. Also, that statistic is not uniform throughout the U.S. and there have been several TV shows set in New York City (one of the most culturally in the U.S.), such as Friends and Girls on HBO, that have been criticized for having improbably all white casts. Most characters on TV shows and movies are white. Most models are white. Most celebrities are white . The white body is so overrepresented and people of color are so underrepresented that sometimes it seems as if people of color do not even exist at all. The

Business Decision Analysis The Present Research

Question: Discuss about the Business Decision Analysis for The Present Research. Answer: Introduction The present research is an analysis on Ford Motors, Australia. Ford Australia has facilities for design, manufacture and engineering facilities that are located at a sprawling location Lara and Geelong regions in Victoria. Ford Australias produces the products Ford Territory and the Ford Falcon. There are many investment opportunities for Ford Motors, Australia but the organization is not able to invest in Australia as much as it wants. Ford Australia wishes to employ around 1500 employees across its manufacturing plants at Richmond, Broadmeadows and Geelong. Ford Australia made an investment of $300 million in 2015 for RD (Ford Australia, 2016). Ford Australia has decided to cease operations in 2016. Even with annual sales of 1.1 million vehicles spread over 65 brands and more than 365 models makes the Australian automotive industry a very competitive market (Ford, 2013). Results Secondary Data The annual reports of Ford shows that there has been a constant decline in the market share and wholesales of Ford Australia. Only the industrial sales volume has increased from 2012 to 2015. The annual industrial sales increased from 1.1 million in 2012 to 1.2 million in 2015 in Australia (Ford, 2015). Year 2012 2013 2014 2015 Industry Sales Volume 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.2 Wholesales 94 85 80 71 Market Share 7.2 7.7 7.2 6.1 Table 1: Ford Australias Equity (source created by author) Correspondingly, the market share of Ford Australia decreased steadily from 7.7% in 2012 to 6.1% in 2015. Ford Australia wholesale sales also decreased from 94 to 71 thousand units from 2012 to 2015 (Ford Australia, 2015; Ford Australia, 2014). 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 Engineering, Research and development (in billions $) 6.7 6.7 6.2 5.5 5.3 Advertising 4.30 4.30 4.40 4.00 4.10 Table 2: Investment in Research and advertisements (source created by author) There has been a steady increase in the expenses of Ford organization from 5.3 billion to 6.7 billion from 2011 to 2015. Out of this only $300 million was invested in Ford Australia for research (Ford, 2015). Outcomes From an analysis of the industrial sales volume of Ford Australia, it is seen that there is a steady increase in the sales volume over the period from 2012 to 2015. There has also been a steady increase in the engineering and research department of Ford, but the corresponding investment in automotive research at Australia is dismal. According to the recent trends, the auto-industry is looking at a record growth in the sales in the next decade in the light vehicle segment. Newer and intelligent cars are making an introduction. Cars with newer features are being designed and developed. These cars have newer softwares, may be dual powered (petrol / diesel and electric), with better engine design. The automakers have to develop cars with better fuel consumption (more than 60 miles per gallon) in US and Europe (, 2016). Ford in India plans to manufacture a 1.2 litre petrol engine and a 2.2 litre diesel engine vehicle. With the manufacture of these two vehicles, they plan to make 270,000 vehicles globally (India India, 2016) According to the CEO of Ford is investing $4.5 billion to change its manufacturing line up. The CEO also further acknowledged that they were in seriously thinking into researching an electric vehicle as being made by Tesla and Chevrolet (Business Insider, 2016). From an analysis of the figures of 2014 and 2015 in the automotive industry in Australia it can be seen that the market share of vehicles has reduces from 7.2% to 6.1%. There has also been an increase (negative) in sales from 2014. In fact, in 2014 also there was a negative growth in sales as compared to 2013. The total sale volume has reduces from 79,703 to 70,454. Compared this with other automotive manufacturers in Australia there has been a steady growth of the market share of brands like Toyota and Mazda. In fact, there has been a turnaround for Totyota and Mazda from 2014 to 2013 that have shown an increase in sales volume after a decrease in sales in 2013. From the year, 2013 to 2014 Ford Australia has dropped in rank from 5th to 6th position (Nuttal, 2016). The Australian auto industry is also introducing new legislation for manufacturing automobiles with telematics and semi-autonomous features like auto parking and lane assist. This feature will allow the driver for a safer driving on highways, lane driving and pre-collision systems. The telematics calls for GPS navigation and vehicle tracking (Nuttal, 2016). According to the sustainability report of 2014-15 Ford is working on three strategic priorities: to increase the pace at Ford, to deliver excellent products and innovate in the business (Ford Motor Company, 2016). The managements of automotive industry are thinking in terms of safeguarding the environment. Strategic investment also would also mean investing in the sales network and developing independent franchisee. Only then can the industry be competitive and profitable. For automotive industry environmental factors, social and economical challenges are interlinked. The type of product technology is related to the environment (Wells, 2013). To improve the performance of auto manufactures they should tie up with their competitors. This strategic tie-up will increase the performance of the supply chain. The supply chain performance can be evaluated based on economic factors, the reduction in the operational costs and the impact on the environment (Joenssen, Michaelis Mllerleile, 2014). All over the world industries are tying up to have a symbiotic effect. An extension of this is the strategic tie-ups that can take up in Australia (Ford) with EV vehicles. A study found that in 39% of Australian people would prefer to have an EV (Naor et al., 2015). The funds that are being made available, Ford Australia should try to take advantage of the situation and do a rethink on its strategies. (, 2016). With the type of skilled labour force Ford, Australia has it would not be difficult for the organization to revive its production (Lawson, Salanitri Waterfield, 2016). Conclusion The global car industry is going through a transformation. On the one hand, electric vehicles are making inroads, newer electric vehicles with more than 200 miles per charge are being developed and on the other hand, vehicles with better fuel efficiency (more than 60 miles per gallon) are being expected. This is a big challenge for Ford Australia, which has a separate design, manufacturing and engineering team. It should make strategic investment so that it can build vehicles which will be able to come up to the mark of the proposed new legislation. For Ford Australia to manufacture vehicles according to the new legislation, the organization should invest in Research. Only then will it be able to compete with its competitors. This strategic investment should be under different heads. Ford Australias major two vehicles are Ford Territory and the Ford Falcon. Ford Australia should consider promoting these two brands in the international market. This would enable it to have a higher sales volume and increase in market share. Ford Australia has seen a drop in market share and sales volume consecutively for 2 years. To make an impact on the sales volume and market share Ford Australia should make an investment in different sectors. It should analyse the market forces that enables a buyer to choose a vehicle of the competitor. Thus, there should be an investment under the competitive head so that it can increase its sales and market share. There has been an increase in the sales volume of cars that are manufactured by Ford Australia, even though the market share has decreased. World over Ford has made an increase in investment in engineering, research and development, Ford world over has made an increase in the advertisement for the increase in the sales of the vehicles. This would mean that Ford Australia has not utilised the opportunities of the market in the home sector. This calls for investments by Ford Australia under different heads. Ford Australia can also go forward with strategic alliance with its competitors to reduce its burden on the business waste (environmental), increase the operational factors (related to the quality of product and customer satisfaction) and economic in terms of efficiency. All the above measures call for investment by Ford Australia in various sectors. This would see an increase in workforce, research and the opportunity for Ford Australia to export its products outside of Australia. References 2016 Auto Industry Trends. (2016). Retrieved 1 October 2016, from Business Strategy - Sustainability Report 2014/15 - Ford Motor Company. (2016). Retrieved 1 October 2016, from Ford Australia. (2016). Retrieved 1 October 2016, from Ford is probably working on a Tesla Model 3 rival. (2016). Business Insider. Retrieved 1 October 2016, from Ford. (2013). 2013 annual report. Ford Motor Company 2013 Annual Report. Ford. (2013). Ford-accelerates-australian-business-transformation Ford. (2014). 2014 annual report. Ford Motor Company 2014 Annual Report. Ford. (2015). 2015 annual report. Ford Motor Company 2015 Annual Report. India, India, A. (2016). Automobile Industry in India, Indian Automobile Industry, Sector, Trends, Statistics. Retrieved 1 October 2016, from Joenssen, D. W., Michaelis, A., Mllerleile, T. (2014). A link to new product preannouncement: Success factors in crowdfunding. Available at SSRN 2476841. Lawson, G., Salanitri, D., Waterfield, B. (2016). Future directions for the development of virtual reality within an automotive manufacturer. Applied ergonomics, 53, 323-330. Naor, M., Bernardes, E. S., Druehl, C. T., Shiftan, Y. (2015). Overcoming barriers to adoption of environmentally-friendly innovations through design and strategy: learning from the failure of an electric vehicle infrastructure firm. International Journal of Operations Production Management, 35(1), 26-59. Nuttall, S. (2016). 2014 Vehicle Sales Trends In The Australian Automotive Market. Retrieved 1 October 2016, from Nuttall, S. (2016). 2015 Vehicle Sales Trends In The Australian Automotive Market. Retrieved 1 October 2016, from Shorten unveils $59m plan to save car industry jobs. (2016). Retrieved 3 October 2016, from

Thursday, April 23, 2020

Is There Life on Other Planets free essay sample

I don’t believe there is life on other planets because there hasn’t been any proof to verify such. Scientists continue to search and improve technology to see if they can one day find life on other planets. Til this day there has not been any proof of such living things on any of the other planets. I do know there is a continuous search for the answer if there is life on other planets. I do know it’s possible considering how enormous the Universe is. There is a high possibility of life existing outside our planet. There have been many studies and Earth is the only planet that supports human lives. We don’t know that there isn’t life yet. It hasn’t been proven either way. Look at it this way, we live on a galaxy containing somewhere around 200 billion stars and theirs over 100 billion galaxys that we can actually see. We will write a custom essay sample on Is There Life on Other Planets or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Earth is the only planet on this solar system that has a climate and environment that humans can live . The other planets have extreme temperatures which does not allow for anything to live on them from my point of view there’s just no way possible for life on other planets. Im sure we will continue to search for new and improved way to find out other ways to explore the Universe and find life on other planets. Honestly there’s no way we could say definitely that there isn’t life on other planets it’s just that there isn’t any proof of it yet. For a very long time people here on Earth believe they have seen aliens. There is not a lot of proof of this other than the idea of aliens being seen other than the few sightings which could be unreliable. The best lead as far as the planet Mars is that Scientist have studied Mars for a while and have come to a conclusion that Mars looks like it used to be able to support life though they have not yet spotted any evidence off life their yet.

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

The Stark effects of being absurd in society The Outsider Essays

The Stark effects of being absurd in society The Outsider Essays The Stark effects of being absurd in society The Outsider Essay The Stark effects of being absurd in society The Outsider Essay Essay Topic: Literature A long time ago, I summed up The Outsider in a sentence which I realise is extremely paradoxical: In our society any man who doesnt cry at his mothers funeral is liable to be condemned to death. Albert Camus 8th January 1955 The novel The Outsider establishes a being that is a Nomad or existential in a sense of the society he lives in and the wandering on the cliff beside the sea of introversion and poignancy. Meursault is commonly misunderstood and is regarded as a reject. Furthermore he refuses to lie. A lie is a statement made by someone, in the expectation that the hearers may believe it. In the case of the human heart saying more than one feels, Meursault conforms to the existential presuppositions; this is regarding reality as the state of being, the truth, often unheard of in politics and society. Consequently society feels threatened, by Meursaults refusal to satisfy the feelings of others by showing little remorse for his mothers death. His indifference leads him to be condemned by a trial. In the early stages of the book Meursault is seen as an adverse individual towards society, one who speaks his consciousness. Camus creates a paradoxical character against the normality of society, which brings out stark differences through the use of Meursaults ability to state facts. This narrative effect can be seen from the opening passage, Mother died today. Or maybe yesterday; I dont know. I had a telegram from home: Mother passed away. Funeral tomorrow. Yours sincerely. That doesnt mean anything. It may have been yesterday. We see Meursaults inability to conform to humanity in the event of his mothers death, and the use of the short sentence stating quality. He merely retells the dubious facts of her death as mundane as the telegram had stated it. I even had the impression that this dead body in lying there among them, didnt mean anything to them. Referring to his mother to a dead body shows little emotion. Throughout the ordeal of attending the funeral, Meursault treats it with the same destitution of emotion. Conversations are referred to in a chronological order from the catching of the bus to the moment he crawls into bed. Meursault is an anomaly that does not relate directly to others or human experiences, like emotion, affection or love. She asked me again if I love her. I replied much before, that her question meant nothing or next to nothing, but I supposed I didnt. Curious she then asks Suppose another girl had asked you to marry her- mean a girl you liked in the same way as you like me- would you of said yes to her too? He replies with honesty Naturally Meursault enjoys the physical side of his relationship, he likes to drink smoke swim and have sex. When Marie leaves, he lies in bed and tries to get the salty smell of her hair from the pillow. All these things can be pertained. All the secondary characters, contrast to Meursault. Raymond shows anger, Marie shows passion and Salamano shows possessiveness, all these characteristics show that Meursault is detached from society. Albert Camus chose the constituent of heat and sunlight as a metaphor of Meursaults uncorroborated deiscomfort with society. Both of these elements affect Meursault, I could feel my forehead swelling up under the sun. The heat was pushing full against me I set me teeth, closed my fists in my trouser pockets and tensed my whole body in defiance of the sun and of the drunken haze it was pouring into me. These are al connotations of how society affects Meursault drastically. The bright morning sunshine hit me like a slap in the face. This could mean a deliberate rejection from society. Meursault earlier on laments of the effects the sun has on him. I was so tired that I could hardly see or think straight anymore. This quote encompasses the interpretation of the effects and processes of society on Meursault. He finds his mental process is altered, this comment on society shows how it can screen or change the vision of an individual. Again Meursaults estrangement in society is depicted to the reader. The murder of the Arab conforms Meursaults inability to conform to society. The death of the Arab is not the determination of Meursaults fate, around this time Algiers were easily dispensed of because they were considered to be an inferior underclass that had to be tightly controlled. Meursault cannot see any right or wrong with killing the Arab, the action itself was one that is revealed to be caused by the sun in the trial. Meursault is brought to trial; he is not tried for murder, but tried for his virtue. The court system of a Europe institution in North Africa is satirised. The prejudice under French colonial rule would let a man off with a light sentence, however in Meursaults case the jury sees him as a monster for failing to cry at his mothers funeral and commiting unspeakable atrocities while in mourning, swimming, drinking coffee and smoking. The jury fails to recognise personal freedom and choice, which is the fundamental nature of an individuals existence. Society tries to enforce its ideals on Meursault by putting him in jail. Meursault is confused when he realises he is being deprived of his freedom; he tries to understand what is happening to him and therefore tries to understand society. Meursault acts honestly and with no remorse, he feels annoyance towards the magistrate. The frustration Meursault feels leads to more estrangement, which fuels his dislike for society more. In the final chapter, Meursault accepts his fate, which gives him the courage to face his death straight on, and it allows him to come to terms with his position in society. I heard something that I hadnt heard for months. It was the sound of a voice; my own voice, there was no mistaking it. And I recognised it as the voice that for many a day of late had been buzzing in my ears. His voice he hears is the sound of his inner consciousness. This epiphany enables Meurasult to accept his death. He does not wish for his death but in the end invites it its common knowledge that life isnt worth living anyhow. In the last moments of Meursaults doom the prison chaplain tries to convert him. Meursault develops an unsaid philosophy of reality. It gave new meaning to the word life and its true identities. It did not matter to Meursault when or whom committed him to death, he just knew it ended the same. Rejected from society Meursault becomes a martyr in death. When failure seemed imminent Meursaults newly found conscious carries him into a world of discovery. The Outsider is appropriate today as it was when it was first written. Higher powers govern our destiny and if our existence is to mean anything we must find explanation for it ourselves. Camus cardinal rule from a readers interpretation is that society constricts a beings consciousness and indifference, in to the ideals that have been taught since the beginning of time.

Sunday, March 1, 2020

Biography of Dorothy Vaughan, Groundbreaking NASA Mathematician

Biography of Dorothy Vaughan, Groundbreaking NASA Mathematician Dorothy Vaughan (September 20, 1910 – November 10, 2008) was an African American mathematician and computer. In her time working for NASA, she became the first African American woman to hold a supervisory position and helped the institution transition to computer programming. Fast Facts: Dorothy Vaughan Full Name: Dorothy Johnson VaughanOccupation: Mathematician and computer programmerBorn: September 20, 1910 in  Kansas City, MissouriDied: November 10, 2008 in Hampton,  VirginiaParents: Leonard and Annie JohnsonSpouse: Howard Vaughan (m. 1932); they had six childrenEducation: Wilberforce University, B.A. in mathematics Early Life Dorothy Vaughan was born in Kansas City, Missouri, the daughter of Leonard and Annie Johnson. The Johnson family soon moved to Morgantown, West Virginia, where they stayed throughout Dorothy’s childhood. She quickly proved to be a talented student, graduating early from high school at the age of 15 as her graduating class’ valedictorian. At Wilberforce University, a historically black college in Ohio, Vaughan studied mathematics. Her tuition was covered by a full-ride scholarship from the West Virginia Conference of the A.M.E. Sunday School Convention. She graduated with her bachelor’s degree in 1929, only 19 years old, cum laude. Three years later, she married Howard Vaughan, and the couple moved to Virginia, where they initially lived with Howard’s wealthy and well-respected family. From Teacher to Computer Although Vaughan was encouraged by her professors at Wilberforce to go to graduate school at Howard University, she declined, instead taking a job at Robert Russa Moton High School in Farmville, Virginia, so that she could help support her family during the Great Depression. During this time, she and her husband Howard had six children: two daughters and four sons. Her position and education placed her as an admired leader in her community. Dorothy Vaughan taught high school for 14 years during the era of racially segregated education. In 1943, during World War II, she took a job at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA, the predecessor to NASA) as a computer. NACA and the rest of the federal agencies had technically desegregated in 1941 by executive order of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Vaughan was assigned to the West Area Computing group at Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. Despite women of color being recruited actively, they were still segregated into groups separate from their white counterparts. The computing group consisted of expert female mathematicians who dealt with complex mathematical calculations, nearly all done by hand. During the war, their work was connected to the war effort, since the government firmly believed that the war would be won on the strength of air forces. The scope of activity at NACA expanded considerably after WWII ended and the space program began in earnest. For the most part, their work involved reading data, analyzing it, and plotting it for use by the scientists and engineers. Although the women- both white and black- often held degrees similar to (or even more advanced than) the men who worked at NASA, they were only hired for lower positions and pay. Women could not be hired as engineers. Supervisor and Innovator In 1949, Dorothy Vaughan was assigned to supervise the West Area Computers, but not in an official supervisory role. Instead, she was given the role as acting head of the group (after their previous supervisor, a white woman, died). This meant the job didn’t come with the expected title and pay bump. It took several years and advocating for herself before she was finally given the role of supervisor in an official capacity and the benefits that came with it. Vaughan did not just advocate for herself, but also worked hard to advocate for more opportunities for women. Her intention was not just to help her West Computing colleagues, but women across the organization, including white women. Eventually, her expertise came to be highly valued by the engineers at NASA, who relied heavily on her recommendations to match projects with the computers whose skills aligned best. In 1958, NACA became NASA and segregated facilities were completely and finally abolished. Vaughan worked in the Numerical Techniques division and, in 1961, shifted her focus to the new frontier of electronic computing. She figured out, earlier than many others, that electronic computers were going to be the future, so she set out to make sure she- and the women in her group- were prepared. During her time at NASA, Vaughan also contributed directly to projects on the space program with her work on the Scout Launch Vehicle Program, a particular type of rocket designed to launch small satellites into orbit around the Earth. Vaughan taught herself the programming language FORTRAN that was used for early computing, and from there, she taught it to many of her colleagues so they would be prepared for the inevitable transition away from manual computing and towards electronics. Eventually, she and several of her West Area Computing colleagues joined the newly formed Analysis and Computation Division, a race- and gender-integrated group working to expand the horizons of electronic computing. Although she tried to receive another management position, she was never granted one again. Photographs from Dorothy Vaughans retirement party. Vaughan retired from NASA in 1971.   Courtesy Vaughan Family / Later Life and Legacy Dorothy Vaughan worked at Langley for 28 years while raising six children (one of whom followed in her footsteps and worked at NASA’s Langley facility). In 1971, Vaughan finally retired at the age of 71. She continued to be active in her community and her church throughout retirement, but lived a fairly quiet life. Vaughan died on November 10, 2008 at the age of 98, less than a week after the election of America’s first black president, Barack Obama. Vaughan’s story came to public attention in 2016, when Margot Lee Shetterly published her nonfiction book Hidden Figures: The American Dream and the Untold Story of the Black Women Who Helped Win the Space Race. The book was made into a popular feature film, Hidden Figures, which was nominated for Best Picture at the 2017 Academy Awards and won the 2017 Screen Actors Guild Award for best ensemble (the guild’s equivalent of a best picture award). Vaughan is one of the three main characters in the film, along with colleagues Katherine Johnson and Mary Jackson. She’s portrayed by Oscar-winning actress Octavia Spencer. Sources Dorothy Vaughan. Encyclopaedia Britannica.Shetterly, Margot Lee. Dorothy Vaughan Biography. National Aeronautics and Space Administration.Shetterly, Margot Lee. Hidden Figures: The American Dream and the Untold Story of the Black Women Who Helped Win the Space Race. William Morrow Company, 2016.